WIAS Preprint No. 2329, (2016)

Stochastic model for LFP-electrodes


  • Dreyer, Wolfgang
  • Friz, Peter
    ORCID: 0000-0003-2571-8388
  • Gajewski, Paul
  • Guhlke, Clemens
  • Maurelli, Mario
    ORCID: 0000-0002-3028-1742

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 35Q84 80A22 74N30

2010 Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme

  • 05.10.Gg, 05.70.Fh, 05.70.Ce, 82.47.Aa


  • lithium-ion batteries, lithium iron phospate, thermodynamics, phase transitions, many particle electode




In the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics we derive a new model for porous electrodes. The model is applied to LiFePO4 (LFP) electrodes consisting of many LFP particles of nanometer size. The phase transition from a lithium-poor to a lithium-rich phase within LFP electrodes is controlled by surface fluctuations leading to a system of stochastic differential equations. The model is capable to derive an explicit relation between battery voltage and current that is controlled by thermodynamic state variables. This voltage-current relation reveals that in thin LFP electrodes lithium intercalation from the particle surfaces into the LFP particles is the principal rate limiting process. There are only two constant kinetic parameters in the model describing the intercalation rate and the fluctuation strength, respectively. The model correctly predicts several features of LFP electrodes, viz. the phase transition, the observed voltage plateaus, hysteresis and the rate limiting capacity. Moreover we study the impact of both the particle size distribution and the active surface area on the voltagecharge characteristics of the electrode. Finally we carefully discuss the phase transition for varying charging/discharging rates.

Appeared in

  • Cont. Mech. Thermodyn., 30:3 (2018) pp. 593--628, changed title: Stochastic many-particle model for LFP electrodes

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