WIAS Preprint No. 3043, (2023)

Square waves and Bykov T-points in a delay algebraic model for the Kerr--Gires--Tournois interferometer


  • Stöhr, Mina
  • Koch, Elias R.
  • Javaloyes, Julien
  • Gurevich, Svetlana V.
  • Wolfrum, Matthias
    ORCID: 0000-0002-4278-2675

2020 Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 34K13 34K16


  • Large delay, homoclinic bifurcations, square waves


We study theoretically the mechanisms of square wave formation of a vertically emitting micro-cavity operated in the Gires-Tournois regime that contains a Kerr medium and that is subjected to strong time-delayed optical feedback and detuned optical injection. We show that in the limit of large delay, square wave solutions of the time-delayed system can be treated as relative homoclinic solutions of an equation with an advanced argument. Based on this, we use concepts of classical homoclinic bifurcation theory to study different types of square wave solutions. In particular, we unveil the mechanisms behind the collapsed snaking scenario of square waves and explain the formation of complex-shaped multistable square wave solutions through a Bykov T-point. Finally we relate the position of the T-point to the position of the Maxwell point in the original time-delayed system

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