A Redlich--Kister type free energy model for Li-intercalation compounds with variable lattice occupation numbers
- Landstorfer, Manuel
2010 Mathematics Subject Classification
- 82B30 82D25 80A17
- battery material, open circuit potential, entropy of mixing, enthalpy of mixing, Redlich--Kister, material model, free energy density
One of the central quantities of a lithium ion intercalation compound is the open circuit potential, the voltage a battery material delivers in thermodynamic equilibrium. This voltage is related to the chemical potential of lithium in the insertion material and in general a non-linear function of the mole fraction of intercalated lithium. Experimental data shows further that it is specific for various materials. The open circuit voltage is a central ingredient for mathematical models of whole battery cells, which are used to investigate and simulate the charge and discharge behavior and to interpret experimental data on non-equilibrium processes. However, since no overall predictive theoretical method presently exists for the open circuit voltage, it is commonly fitted to experimental data. Simple polynomial fitting approaches are widely used, but they lack any thermodynamic interpretation. More recently systematically and thermodynamically motivated approaches are used to model the open circuit potential. We provide here an explicit free energy density which accounts for variable occupation numbers of Li on the intercalation lattice as well as Redlich--Kister-type enthalpy contributions. The derived chemical potential is validated by experimental data of Liy(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 and we show that only two parameters are sufficient to obtain an overall agreement of the non-linear open circuit potential within the experimental error.