WIAS Preprint No. 1991, (2014)

Efficient blood flow simulations for the design of stented valve reducer in enlarged ventricular outflow tracts


  • Caiazzo, Alfonso
    ORCID: 0000-0002-7125-8645
  • Guibert, Romain
  • Boudjemline, Younes
  • Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 65Z05 74L15 76Z05 92C50


  • Device design, percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement, multi scale blood flow simulations, right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), repaired tetralogy of Fallot


Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease characterized over time, after the initial repair, by the absence of a functioning pulmonary valve, which causes regurgitation, and by progressive enlargement of the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries. Due to this pathological anatomy, available transcatheter valves are usually too small to be deployed in the enlarged right ventricular outflow tracts (RVOT). To avoid surgical valve replacement, an alternative consists in implanting a reducer prior to or in combination with a transcatheter valve. We describe a computational model to study the effect of a stented valve RVOT reducer on the hemodynamics in enlarged ventricular outflow tracts. To this aim, blood flow in the right ventricular outflow tract is modeled via the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations coupled to a simplified valve model, numerically solved with a standard finite element method and with a reduced order model based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). Numerical simulations are based on a patient geometry obtained from medical imaging and boundary conditions tuned according to measurements of inlet flow rates and pressures. Different geometrical models of the reducer are built, varying its length and/or diameter, and compared with the initial device-free state. Simulations thus investigate multiple device configurations and describe the effect of geometry on hemodynamics. Forces exerted on the valve and on the reducer are monitored, varying with geometrical parameters. Results support the thesis that the reducer does not introduce significant pressure gradients, as was found in animal experiments. Finally, we demonstrate how computational complexity can be reduced with POD.

Appeared in

  • Cardiovasc. Eng. Technol., 6 (2015) pp. 485--500.

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